Public Domain:


“Leaving an abusive partner or spouse is complicated. Victims are often isolated and financially dependent on their abusers. Hard to imagine? See for yourself how domestic abuse escalates.”

The All State Foundation offers a powerful, interactive demo as part of it’s “Purple Purse” campaign to raise awareness about the devastating effects of financial abuse, and the difficulties victims face when escaping an abusive relationship.

Click Here to Experience: Why Don’t You Just Leave? (Purple Purse)

“Why Don’t You Just Leave?”  is  a video portraying the first person perspective of an abuse victim. Along with the video is a narrative telling the story of the victim.  The viewer sees the life of the abuse victim in their home, the effects of the abuse are shown in a light fixture swinging crazily from side to side, and objects spilled om the floor. The video follows the victim in their efforts to escape and reach out for help.

Domestic abuse is defined by a pattern of behaviors involving threats, intimidation or force used  to gain power and control over another person. This demo really gives viewers a sense of how power and control manifests by portraying the struggles victims commonly face, and showing examples of how abusers trap victims into staying in the relationship.

The Purple Purse site also includes real Survivor Stories to providing inspiring examples of women who have escaped, and survived, abusive relationships.

About All State  Foundation “Purple Purse”: 

Allstate Foundation Purple Purse is the longest running national campaign focused on ending domestic violence through a proven solution: financial empowerment services for survivors. We’ve invested over $50 million and helped more than 1 million survivors recover their financial independence and break the cycle of domestic violence.

The “Purple Purse” does not offer funding directly to individuals; but does offer grants to organizations that assist abuse victims.

For More Information: 

Purple Purse Financial Tools Introduction

Online Financial Curriculum

If you are a victim of domestic violence looking for assistance, contact the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 800-799-SAFE (7233). If you are in danger due to domestic violence, dial 911.

Lundy Bancroft will be speaking in Minnesota at the upcoming conference “Behind Closed Doors: A Deeper Look Into Domestic Abuse, Sexual Assault, and the Effects of Trauma”.

The conference hosted by Saving Grace, a local non-profit, in recognition of Domestic Violence Awareness Month. For more info, visit: Saving Grace Facebook

For more information, and registration, please visitBehind Closed Doors Conference – St. Paul, MN – 10/27/2017


Fri, October 27, 2017

7:30 AM – 4:30 PM



Amherst H. Wilder Foundation

451 Lexington Parkway North

Saint Paul, MN 55104



Through plenary presentation and breakout sessions, participants will gain in-depth knowledge of the multiple and complex factors associated with abuse and trauma.

“Behind Closed Doors” will provide education and training:

  • To understand the effects of verbal/emotional, physical, sexual, and interpersonal violence; trauma and recovery in adults and children.
  • To identify the short and long-term impact of domestic violence and sexual assault; emotional, mental, physical, economical, financial, and legal.
  • To understand the effects of trauma on the brain, in adults and children, and utilize Forensic Experiential Trauma Interview techniques.
  • To increase professional collaboration efforts of community partners in being able to identify, interrupt, and influence a positive change in the outcomes of batterers and victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, and human trafficking.

    Lundy Bancroft

Lundy Bancroft will be presenting as a keynote speaker on “Why Does He Do That?: The Profile and Tactics of Men Who Abuse Women“. Lundy will also host 3 break out sessions in a smaller group setting on the following: “Meeting the Post-Separation Needs of Women and Children”, “Assessing Risk to Children from Men Who Batter” and “Advocacy and Legal Representation for Women in Custody Disputes.”

Behind Closed Doors” will then be followed by several break out sessions, so participants can chose the subjects they want to learn more about and customize the conference to their interests and/or needs.

The break out sessions are conducted by a wide variety of experts including therapists, nurses, law enforcement, child protection worker, victim advocates, legal professionals and other community professionals.

Topics Include: 

*Understanding Trauma

*Effects of Violence and Trauma on Children

*Documentation and Care of the Patient

*Family Court and Legal Issues

*Best Practices in Sex Trafficking Investigations

*Challenging Bias, Beliefs and Assumptions

*Understanding Multi-Cultural Issues in Domestic Violence Situations

And more…

Public and professionals are invited to attend what will be an interesting, and informational event!

“Behind Closed Doors” is specifically designed for Social Workers, Child Protection Workers, Teachers, School Counselors, Lawyers, Law Students, Child Custody Evaluators, Guardians Ad Litem, Parenting Consultants, Judges, Law Enforcement, Investigators, Probation Officers, Health Care and Mental Health Professionals, Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Advocates, Physicians, Nurses, and Forensic Nurses. *CEU’s, CLE’s, & POST credits are being applied for*


Listen In: Violent No More: Helping Men End Domestic Abuse

I don’t think we will end domestic abuse or rape or trafficking in this country until the culture starts to change; and I think each and every one of us has an obligation to speak up, to get involved and there’s lots of ways to do that in our communities, and you just have to take that step.

And we shouldn’t be waiting ’til a horrible tragedy happens, when you read something in the newspaper about a woman being killed or just the statistics that are so haunting about all of these young girls being trafficked in all of our cities, that that it really is up to us, our institutions, our communities, and the culture to change the belief and attitudes. And when that happens, I think we’ll start to see some fundamental changes…” ~ Michael Paymar

Following a recent show on Battered Women, Psych Up takes on the crucial issue of helping men end domestic violence.  Our guest, Representative Michael Paymar brings tremendous knowledge and experience to this issue. His career has spanned from his direct work with batterers and his co-founding the nationally recognized Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project to combating gender violence and related issues as a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives.

As the author of “Violent No More: Helping Men End Domestic Violence”, and the co-producer of the award winning documentary film, With Impunity: Men and Gender Violence, Michael Paymar discusses with host, Suzanne Phillips, the success and challenges in ending domestic violence. He describes the power of a group model that requires men to take responsibility and offers hope. He considers the need for a change in the personal, familial and cultural attitudes that allow domination of women with impunity.

In the back and forth he considers the messages that boys and girls are given and offers examples of how a father, mother, coach, or college co-ed can shift the attitudes that perpetuate gender violence. This show makes domestic violence a personal and painful reality that we need the courage to face.

For Help: 

The National Domestic Violence Hotline – 1-800-799-7233
1-800-787-3224 (TTY for Deaf/hard of hearing)

Learn more about More about Michael Paymar’s work:

Education for Critical Thinking

Violent No More: Helping Men End Domestic Violence by Michael Paymar

Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs (Home of the Duluth Model)



Are you working with a team, only to find one member has taken over the entire project, and is shutting everyone else out? Have work objectives been delayed because a co-worker is putting their own interests or ideas first? Have you given feedback on a work project, and a co-worker responded by lashing out at you in rage or emotion that was exaggerated or unreasonable for the situation? Is one person making the work environment so toxic or so full of drama that the job or group is no longer productive? Have you thought about quitting a job or project that you are passionate about, or skilled at working in because of a co-workers actions of behavior?

Maybe you are working with a narcissist.

If so, the best protection against the manipulation and mind games used by a narcissist is to learn as much as you can so that the narcissist loses their control over you. When you can identify narcissistic behavior, for what it is, and seek other options you are no longer playing into their games and now can take steps to protect yourself.

What is Narcissism?

The term “narcissist” came from a Greek myth where the hunter Narcissus fell in love with his own image reflected in a pool of water.

In a nutshell, narcissism is a personality disorder where an individual has an exaggerated sense of their own importance, and/or an excessive interest in the self or personal appearance. Narcissists believe the world revolves around them and have little concern, or care, for other people. Behind the Narcissist’s mask of self importance lies a fragile ego who reacts with rage or dysfunctional behavior when confronted with their own fears or insecurities.

Are you working with a narcissist?

Working with a Narcissist on a job, volunteer project or in a group effort is often extremely difficult – and fraught with complications and obstacles created from the havoc of a person more concerned with their own self than the actual task at hand. A narcissist will put their own interests ahead of the benefit of the group, and can not see (or appreciate) the bigger picture. Narcissists often take advantage or exploit people to further their own interests.

How to identify a narcissist in the work environment?

Preston Ni, coach and trainer, shares his insights on how to identify a narcissistin his article: 10 Signs Your Co-Worker / Colleague is a Narcissist

So You Have Identified the Narcissist, Now What?

Some tips for dealing with a narcissist in the work place…

* Document the narcissist concerning behavior, especially if it rises to the level of threats, harassment or makes you feel unsafe.
*Save copies of all toxic or threatening e-mails or communications
* File a complaint or speak to a manager. Document all efforts; bring a witness if you feel the management may side with the narcissist.
* Identify your support system or safe person you can confide in. NEVER confide or share intimate details with a narcissist, even if they are on their best behavior the narcissist is always gaming you.
* Narcissists are not team players – realize their is nothing you did to deserve their poor treatment towards you. Do not attempt to appease a narcissist or get on their good side. Your energy and efforts would be better spent protecting yourself.
*When communicating with a narcissist, stick to the facts and do not include opinions, emotion or other personal information. Anything personal you share will only be used to hurt you later.
* Be prepared that confronting the behavior of a narcissist in any way will always cost you in some way. This is why support is so important. And if you have to take legal action, you need to be prepared.
* If you feel like you could lose your job or would want to quit, seek other career alternatives or support.
* Do not blame yourself for the irrational, unreasonable or illogical actions of a narcissist! Guilt, blame, and scapegoating are all tools used by a narcissist to avoid responsibility for their own actions, do not fall into that trap.

Any ideas or tips on how to identify a narcissist in the work place or how to deal with their difficult behaviors? Leave your tips and comments below!

Title: “Helping Your Child Survive a Difficult Divorce” by Lynne Namka, Ed. D. (Tucson, Arizona: © 2000)
Description: “A Psychologist Who has Dealt with the Pain of Many Children Whose Parents Act Irrationally During Divorce Tells It Like It Is!”

In the article “Helping Your Child Survive a Difficult Divorce”, psychologist and author, Lynne Namka shares insights on how the behavior of parents during or after a divorce impacts the children who are caught in the middle. Children are hurt when parents war against each other, or when one parent displays “negative behavior” towards the other during or after divorce. This article offers positive solutions to identify problematic behavior, tips on healing from divorce, and tips on how to identify your motives and behaviors so you can co-parent more effectively.

Lynne advises, “Do not let your child be a witness to your anger at his or her other parent. Belittling your child’s mother or father is a form of child abuse that can affect your child’s self esteem permanently. Your child is half of the other parent. If you criticize your ex, your child will feel ashamed of half of him or herself. You WILL hurt your child if you habitually yell at your ex, trash talk about them, if you are self righteous in explaining how wrong their point of view is or if you try to evade the legal custody arrangement.

“Helping Your Child” also explains how one parent’s efforts to exert power and control over the other parent can escalate to emotional and psychological abuse.

Seeking power and control over the parent is commonly motivated by:
· A parent’s need to control the person they are divorcing
· Anger towards the other parent
· An abuser may try to avoid their own feelings of powerlessness by exerting power and control over another person
· The need to be right, at any cost
· Avoiding responsibility for their actions in the marriage, in combination with a sense of guilt, may also cause a parent to cast blame on another parent
· Inability to let go of the past or living in the past
· Avoiding your own feelings of anger, hurt and resentment by dumping or venting them onto the ex partner

Lynn says that the maturity level of a parent affects how they deal with the divorce, and with their own emotions. A parent who is able to control their emotions is better able to co-parent, and in turn the child experiences more stability.

If you are dealing with anger towards another parent, Lynne advises seeking therapy, finding a support group or taking a divorce recovery or anger management class. She says, Make your goal to get a working relationship with the other parent of your child. If you are willing to see how your angry actions affect your child and do something about it, your child has the best chance for a happy future. The pain of the divorce can start to heal for everyone.

If your ex partner is engaging in abusive or harmful behavior, and you feel that your safety or that of your child is at risk, seek help from an experienced professional or domestic violence organization. In relationships where domestic violence is present, the most dangerous time for the victim is when leaving the perpetrator, as that is when the abuse escalates. Abusers may also use the child as a pawn to control, dominate or seek revenge against the other parent (domestic violence by proxy) or engage in alienation tactics.

“Helping Your Child” also offers a list of do’s and don’t’s for parents co-parenting after divorce, and some helpful resources, for parents to identify problematic behavior and find positive ways to change.

The article ends with a statement called “The Rights of a Child in Divorce”, which I will share here. When you talk about the “best interest” or “doing what is best” for a child the message and intent can get confused, or enmeshed with what the adult is seeking. “The Rights of a Child in a Divorce” offers both a perspective from a child while also offering a guide for parents.

The Rights of a Child in a Divorce
· To be told that my mother and father still love me and will never divorce me.
· To be told that the divorce is not my fault and not to be told about the adult problems that caused it.
· To be treated as a human being—not as another piece of property to be fought over, bargained over or threatened.
· To have decisions about me based on my best interest, rather than past wrongs, hurt feelings, or parent’s needs.
· To love both my parents without being forced to choose or feel guilty.
· To know both my parents through regular, frequent involvement in my life.
· To have the financial support of both my father and mother.
· To be spared hearing bad hurtful comments about either of my parents which have no useful purpose.
· Not to be asked to tell a lie or act as a spy or messenger.
· To be allowed to care about others without having to choose or feel guilty.

Do you feel “stuck” in your marriage? Is there a nagging sense that something is wrong between you and your spouse but you don’t know what? Have you tried “everything” to “fix” your problems but still, nothing seems to change?

Dave Willis tackles the 7 common patterns of dysfunction that wreak havoc on his marriage in an article on Family Share: The 7 Types of Dysfunctional Marriages

These are the most common patterns, but it does not limit the other types of problems that may exist. Willis is not a therapist; this article is based on his experience as pastor who has interacted with other married couples from all over the world. Willis is also married.

In brief, the common types Willis mentions includes (there is more detail in the article):

1) The Scorekeepers – Who keep score of the other partner’s behavior and use that to control or manipulate.
2) The Fantasizers – Live in a fantasy life, not reality.
3) The Outsourcers – Escape into other people, careers and personal pursuits at the expense of their marriage.
4) The Blamers – Blame their partner for anything and everything that is wrong.
5) The Separatists – A marriage where both people are living two separate lives, and have lost the togetherness and equality that marriage requires.
6) The Deceivers – A marriage that lacks trust and is troubled with secrecy and lies.
7) The Quitters – A partner that quits when things get tough.

The article does not talk about domestic violence (which includes emotional abuse, a strong theme in these patterns of dysfunction) but I think the warning signs should be mentioned to raise awareness of the possibility, in case abuse is happening in the relationships. Early detection of domestic violence is crucial in helping a victim be safe, and get needed help.

Power and Control Wheel:

Warning Signs of Family Violence (Fulton Co. Violence Task Force)

You do not have to live in chaos or dysfunction! Recognizing there is a real problem in your marriage is the first step to getting help. You do not have to make these choices alone, nor do you have to be trapped or stuck in a situation that seems out of your control, there is help and support available to break free from the dysfunction, and live the life you were meant to have.

— EJ, 2015

211 is a free and confidential phone line for people in North America to find local community resources. Open 24/7: 211 Resources

Crisis Call Center: 1-800-273-8255 or 775-784-8090. Or, text “ANSWER” to 839863.
Staff and volunteers are available 24/7/365. This is a confidential and free service. Crisis Call Center’s 24-hour crisis line is here to provide safe, non-judgmental support for individuals in any type of crisis. In addition to our 24-hour crisis hotline, we also offer crisis intervention through text messaging. Text “ANSWER” to 839863.
Crisis Call Center

Crisis Text Line serves anyone in any type of crisis, providing them access to free, 24/7 emotional support and information they need via the medium they already use and trust: text. Here’s how it works:
Someone texts into CTL anywhere, anytime, about any type of crisis.
A live, trained specialist receives the text and responds quickly.
The specialist helps the person stay safe and healthy with effective, secure counseling and referrals through text message using CTL’s platform.
Crisis Text Line

The National Domestic Violence Hotline: National Domestic Violence Hotline
1-800-799-7233 | 1-800-787-3224 (TTY)

The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-8255

You have been awarded custody or visitation in a court order but the other parent is violating the terms of the court order. What can you do? And what should you avoid?

Please Note: The information contained in this article DOES NOT CONSTITUTE LEGAL ADVISE but is based on informational blogs containing tips about family court orders, and also based on insight from my own personal experiences in family court. If you have a question or need help regarding a custody order or other family court issues, please seek help from a legal professional. Your local court may also offer limited legal help through a legal clinic or by offering a list of resources for legal help. Many battered women organizations also offer legal resources or help.

A custody or parenting time order is a legally enforceable document issued by the Court. The order requires a parent to follow certain custody and visitation arrangements, and can restrict them from certain behavior or actions. A violation is any action or behavior that defies the court order.

As a rule, minor violations are considered unintentional, and are delays or inconveniences that can happen in the normal course of co-parenting or exchanging a child from one home to the other. Minor violations may include: being a few minutes late for an exchange, missing a visitation because a child is sick or a child forgets a weekly phone call because they are hanging out with friends and has to call you later, etc.

Sometimes, the minor violations begin to escalate to more serious violations. Or there may be a pattern of repeated minor violations that, over time, disrupt parenting time. These issues must be addressed, at some level, to avoid ongoing problems.

A major violation puts the child at risk of mental or physical harm. Major violations also may purposefully deprive the other parent of their visitation or having a relationship with the child. Major violations may include: physical or mental abuse, kidnapping, manipulating a child to violate the court order (refusing visits, disparaging the other parent, using a child to get revenge on the other parent, encouraging child to run away from other parent’s home, etc.)

A court will generally tolerate some minor violation—and will frown upon parents who file motions for frivolous reasons, or issues that could be resolved outside of court. The court will generally take it more serious if minor violations are ongoing, begin to escalate or show a clear pattern of obstruction. The court legally has to consider taking action against violations that cause imminent harm to a child. The court will also take action against repeated violations that cost a parent money or harm the other parent’s relationship with their child.

If a parent poses a risk of harm to a child, the parent can file an emergency “ex parte” motion in court, and ask the Judge to look at the circumstance that pose a risk to the child and take immediately action. If the Judge feels the situation is urgent, and meets the legal standards of an “ex parte” hearing, he can issue a temporary order to limit or deny contact between the child and the offending parent, or change the order as he sees fit. If the Judge does not feel the issue is urgent, he can schedule a hearing for a later date.


Violating a court order could result in some serious consequences. The action a Judge can take against a parent who violates a court order varies, and depends on the Judge and how he applies the law.

If appearing in court or filing a motion, you want to be prepared with evidence, all of your allegations must be backed up with some type of proof (witness affidavits, medical reports, school reports, receipts showing expenses incurred, photographs, etc).

You may also consider other avenues for resolution other than going to court, though this is not advisable for families with a history of domestic abuse.

Actions the Judge May Take if the Court Order is Violated:
*Impose a civil penalty on the offending parent (a monetary fine)
*Order the offending parent to pay attorney’s fees or court costs to the other parent
*Restriction or loss of parenting time
*Order the offending parent into supervised visitation
*Order the offending parent into therapy, anger management, co-parenting classes or other therapeutic remedies
*Change the court order as the Judge sees fit
*Order the parties into supervised exchange, where a professional handles the transition from one home to the other
*Order make-up parenting time for the other parent
*Order the parents in alternate dispute resolution (mediation, parenting consultant, expeditor, etc)
*Criminal charges are also possible in the case the child is harmed, kidnapped or there is a more serious violation
*The offending parent may also face jail time for contempt of court or if criminal charges are filed.

(Suggestions below are based on legal articles, and my personal experiences, on possible options and what types of action or behavior to avoid. This is NOT legal advice, nor can PAK offer legal advise. This is general information only. Please consult a legal professional for specific questions or to get help for your situation.)

*Keep a copy of your court order with you. You may also want a safe person to have a copy of the court order—friend, family, domestic violence advocate, religious support/leader, therapist, etc
*Have your attorney write a strong letter to the other parent on your behalf. The letter can notify the other parent they must comply with the court order or face legal consequences. It may also request a meeting to discuss the issues.
*Call the police. Even if the police cannot enforce the family court order, you can file a report and use it as documentation in court.
*If it is a major violation or the children are in risk of imminent harm, consider seeking help from a legal professional or from a legal clinic. Or, you may contact police or child protection. Your child’s safety is a number one priority!
*As an alternative to court, you may consider mediation with a professional. Before you begin, make sure you understand and come to an agreement about payment arrangements, terms of the agreement and if the session can be used in court. It is becoming more common for Family Court to require an attempt at mediation before a hearing is set in court. So make sure you follow the Court’s requirements, and document your attempts.
*If your family is involved in therapy or counseling, the counselor may be able to assist with minor disputes. Talk with your therapist to see if this is a possibility, and what the session would involve.
*If possible try to resolve the issue with your ex. DO NOT attempt this if there has been a history of abuse or if you do not feel safe! Keep the discussion focused on your child. If you are not sure about something, do not accuse, blame or judge but instead trying asking questions. Be willing to discuss alternatives, and have a few yourself. Document the discussion, and take notes.
Avoid flirting or setting personal meetings outside the court order, as this will confuse your boundaries. Avoid yelling, shouting or provoking a fight. Do not get the children in the middle to serve as messengers or mediators.
Agree on a time to talk, focus on the issue and its resolution. Bring a witness or safe person if you need. If you cannot come to an agreement, you may consider getting some additional help or establishing a time to talk at a later date.
*Document all violations of the court order. Keep your documentation and evidence organized and easily accessible. Keeping track with dates, times and witnesses is very helpful.
*Be proactive in requesting documentation (medical reports, police reports, school reports, etc). It may take a little time to sign a release then get the reports back to you. So take needed steps to get the reports right away to avoid delay or going to court unprepared.
*If you need a witness or safe person to assist you, make sure that person is calm and able to clearly communicate what they have observed in a factual and neutral way. Avoid people your ex would have a conflict with, or people mentioned in the court proceedings who are viewed negatively (their testimony could be disputed in Court). Avoid people who have a hot temper, who are unpredictable or who would fight with your ex. Avoid people with any criminal background, or history of substance abuse. You want someone who will be reliable and credible in court—a friend, family member, religious leader, co-worker or supervised visitation facilitator (some will come to your location for a fee to conduct an exchange or supervise a visit) may be helpful. This person should also have reliable transportation.
*If you need to go to Court, be ready to show documentation and evidence of the violations, and how this violation has harmed or poses a risk of harm to the child. It does help to research, and be familiar with the legal statutes.
*Consider filing a motion in Court for contempt of court to seek legal remedy for the violation. Or consider an emergency ex parte hearing. Do not file a motion for trivial or superficial complaints, the Judge may find this to be “frivolous” and can not only rule against you but punish you as well. Seek legal advise for questions or concerns.


These types of actions and behavior may result in criminal charges, a harassment or protective order filed against you, and loss of custody or visitation with your child.

*Do not take revenge against the ex or their personal property (house, car, favorite possessions, etc). You could be criminally charged if you threaten or cause actual damage.
* Similarly, do not damage things your ex gave the children (gifts, toys, family pictures etc). This is extremely frightening and will ultimately hurt your relationship with your children. The court may perceive this as parental alienation or child abuse.
*Do not post negative comments or pictures about the ex or family court judge and professionals on social media or anywhere else online. When you post online, assume the judge and court officers are reading your posts, and act accordingly.
*Do not stop paying child support, if ordered. Keep payments current.
*Do not withhold visitation, as outlined in the court order. If there is a change in visitation, make sure that it is a change both parties agree to, and get the agreement in writing or save text/e-mail messages about the agreement.
*Do not file false or frivolous complaints against the ex in court, in their job, police reports, child protection reports, with their landlord, in their community, etc
*Do not vent your anger or frustration on your ex. Anything you say can be used against you in court. It is better to stay calm and professional. Keep your personal feelings to yourself. Don’t reveal more than necessary. If it helps you, have a friend or family member be present when making a tough conversation.

If you are struggling with your family court situation and feel overwhelmed, stressed out or unable to cope, you may consider getting additional support. Some helpful places for support are: counseling, support group, domestic violence support/education group, self-help group (meditation, yoga, sand therapy, grief group etc), religious support.

My sincere support and prayers goes out to all those enduring family court litigation, and those trying to rebuild their lives after divorce or separation. Remember the safety, security and happiness of your children should be a Number #1 priority. No matter how hard the battle, the children are worth it! – EJ

“How to Enforce Child Custody and Visitation” by Jellygator, Hubpages:

“How to Enforce Your Child Custody Order” by Free Advice Staff:

“Violation of a Child Custody or Visitation Order” by Kourosh Akbari, LegalMatch Writer:

“Violations of Parenting Time Provisions in an Existing Court Order” by Thompson, Hall, Santi, Cerny and Dooley Attorneys at Law:

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